Anatomy and Perform, Diagram, Situations, and Well being Suggestions

The scrotum is a sac of pores and skin that hangs from the physique on the entrance of the pelvis, between the legs. It sits subsequent to the higher thighs, just under the penis. The scrotum incorporates the testicles. These are two oval-shaped glands liable for producing and storing sperm. In addition they produce a number of hormones, the primary one being testosterone.

The scrotum hangs outdoors the physique as a result of it wants to take care of a barely decrease temperature than the remainder of the physique. This decrease temperature helps to take care of sperm manufacturing. Scrotal tissues assist defend the constructions contained in the testicles, the place sperm and necessary hormones are produced.

As well as, the scrotum protects the testicles and main blood vessels, in addition to tubes that launch sperm from the testicles into the penis for ejaculation.

The scrotum is a sack of pores and skin divided in two components by the perineal raphe, which appears to be like like a line down the center of the scrotum.

The raphe joins the interior septum with the scrotum. The septum splits the scrotal sac into two components with related anatomy.

Either side of the scrotum often consists of a:

  • Testicle. Every testicle produces hormones, the primary one being testosterone, with the assistance of components of the mind just like the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. In addition they include tubules and cells that produce sperm, or spermatozoa. Sperm are transferred from the testicle to the epididymis.
  • Epididymis. An epididymis is positioned on the highest of every testicle. Every epididymis is a tightly coiled tube. They retailer sperm created in every testicle till they’re mature, often for about 60 to 80 days. The epididymis additionally absorbs additional fluid secreted by the testicle to assist transfer sperm by way of the reproductive tract.
  • Spermatic twine. Every spermatic twine incorporates blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels, and a tube known as the vas deferens. This tube strikes sperm out of the epididymis into ejaculatory ducts. The blood vessels preserve the blood provide for the testicle, vas deferens, and cremaster muscle. The nerves transport info from the spinal twine to and from the scrotum, testicles, and cremaster muscle.
  • Cremaster muscle. Every cremaster muscle surrounds one of many testicles and its spermatic twine. The muscle helps to maneuver the testicle towards and away from the physique to take care of the best temperature for sperm manufacturing. That is why the scrotum hangs decrease in heat circumstances and nearer to the physique in chilly climate.

All of those constructions are surrounded by the scrotal wall. This wall is lined with easy muscle known as the dartos fascia muscle. This muscle, together with the cremaster muscle groups, assist to broaden or tighten the pores and skin of the scrotum because it strikes up and down.

Discover the interactive 3-D diagram beneath to study extra in regards to the scrotum.

Many circumstances can have an effect on your scrotum and its contents. Right here’s a listing of a few of the commonest ones.

Inguinal hernia

An inguinal hernia occurs when a part of your small gut pokes by way of a gap in your stomach wall into your scrotum. Some inguinal hernias comply with the trail of the spermatic twine into the scrotum, whereas others keep outdoors it.

Signs of an inguinal hernia can embrace:

  • bulging or swelling round your pubic space that feels prefer it’s aching or burning
  • uncomfortable groin sensation or ache whenever you cough, chuckle, or bend over
  • heaviness round your groin space
  • an enlarged scrotum

Some inguinal hernias will be harmful if left untreated. It’s possible you’ll want surgical procedure to restore an inguinal hernia and forestall tissue loss of life as a consequence of lack of blood move.


A hydrocele occurs when extra fluid builds up within the cavities round one in every of your testicles. That is generally current at start, however it may well additionally end result from an harm or irritation.

Hydrocele signs embrace:

  • scrotal swelling that will get extra noticeable because the day goes on
  • boring ache in your scrotum
  • feeling of heaviness in your scrotum

Hydroceles often don’t require therapy until they’re very giant or painful. Most go away on their very own, however extra extreme circumstances would possibly require surgical restore.


A varicocele is a swollen assortment of veins in your scrotum. It doesn’t all the time trigger signs. When it does, signs embrace:

  • a boring, aching ache in your scrotum
  • ache that will get worse all through the day
  • ache that begins to go away whenever you lie down
  • a scrotum which will really feel like a “bag of worms”

You possibly can have a varicocele your whole life and by no means want therapy. Nonetheless, they’ll generally trigger infertility or testicular shrinkage, so it’s greatest to have it checked out by your physician.


A spermatocele, or spermatic cyst, occurs when a fluid-filled sac varieties within the epididymis. These cysts aren’t cancerous or life-threatening, however they’ll trigger ache and discomfort in the event that they’re giant.

Bigger, extra painful spermatoceles could must be eliminated with surgical procedure.

Testicular torsion

Testicular torsion signifies that your testicle has rotated within the scrotum. This twisting of the spermatic twine cuts off blood provide, nerve perform, and sperm transport to your testicle. This situation is taken into account a medical emergency.

Signs of testicular torsion embrace:

  • extreme scrotum ache and swelling
  • testicle swelling
  • decrease stomach ache
  • nausea and vomiting
  • testicle feeling greater or misplaced
  • urinating greater than regular

Search emergency medical look after any of those signs.

A number of issues could improve the chance of testicular torsion, together with:

  • harm to the scrotum
  • exercising too lengthy or arduous
  • free motion of the testicle within the scrotum brought on by a genetic situation

Testicular torsion happens extra continuously in younger youngsters, teenagers, and younger adults. Your physician can quickly deal with testicular torsion by repositioning the testicle by hand. Nonetheless, it continuously reoccurs. Specialists advocate surgical procedure to completely repair the issue, ideally inside 12 hours from the beginning of signs.


Epididymitis occurs when the epididymis turns into contaminated or infected. It’s usually the results of a sexually transmitted an infection (STI), akin to chlamydia or gonorrhea.

Signs of epididymitis can embrace:

  • scrotum or testicle ache or tenderness
  • warmness or redness in your scrotum
  • uncommon fluid coming out of your penis
  • frequent or painful urination
  • bloody semen
  • fever

Relying on the kind of an infection, you might have to take antibiotics or antiviral remedy.


Orchitis refers to an contaminated or infected testicle. Like epididymitis, orchitis usually outcomes from an an infection brought on by an STI. Different causes can embrace tuberculosis, viruses like mumps, fungi, and parasites, together with different ailments that result in irritation.

Orchitis signs embrace:

  • testicular ache and tenderness
  • swollen testicle
  • fever
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • feeling considerably ailing

Remedy is determined by the trigger. Ultrasound of the scrotum and testicles might help decide the analysis and severity of the situation. Severe infections could require hospitalization or surgical procedure.

Testicular most cancers

Testicular most cancers occurs when cells abnormally multiply inside the tissue of your testicles. It generally begins within the cells that make sperm.

The reason for testicular most cancers isn’t all the time clear. In response to the American Most cancers Society, testicular most cancers is essentially the most generally recognized most cancers in males between the ages of 15 and 44.

Signs of testicular most cancers can embrace:

  • lump in your testicle
  • feeling of scrotum heaviness
  • fluid buildup in your scrotum
  • testicular ache
  • stomach or again ache
  • swollen or tender breast tissue

Remedy is determined by your stage of most cancers. Typically, your physician will surgically take away the testicle. Radiation remedy or chemotherapy can also be a part of the therapy plan. Stem cell transplant can also be used.

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