The bladder, just like the abdomen, is an expandable sac that contracts with internal folds when it’s empty. The internal lining of the bladder tucks into the folds and increase out to accommodate liquid.
When empty, the bladder’s muscle wall turns into thicker, and the complete bladder turns into agency. Because the bladder fills from two ureters—tubes to expel urine from the kidneys to the bladder—the muscle wall thins, and the bladder strikes upward towards the belly cavity.
This stretching can enhance the scale of the bladder from about 2 inches to greater than 5 inches lengthy, relying on the quantity of liquid. The standard human bladder reaches its capability between 16 to 24 ounces of urine, however the urge to urinate comes when the bladder is about one-quarter full.
An inner sphincter — a sort of muscular valve — helps forestall urine from leaking out. The triangle-shaped base of the bladder, generally known as the trigone, helps forestall stretching of the urethra or backflow into the ureters.
When signaled, the bladder releases urine by way of the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the physique. In males, the urethra ends on the tip of the penis. In ladies, this tube ends between the clitoris and the vagina.
Wholesome bladders maintain urine till individuals have time to alleviate themselves, however issues can come up for various causes.
Bladder infections and infections of the urinary tract are extra frequent in ladies as they’re extra vulnerable to outdoors micro organism than males. Additionally, ladies who’ve lately given start could expertise urinary issues.
Though uncommon in males, bladder infections do happen extra typically in older males. As they’re unusual, an an infection could possibly be an indication of one thing blocking the urinary tract or an much more major problem akin to most cancers or kidney stones.
Males can even expertise urinary issues because of issues with their prostate, a walnut-sized gland that surrounds the urethra.
Bladder management points are frequent in ladies over the age of 50. A few of these circumstances embody:
- Overactive bladder
- Urinary incontinence
- Stress incontinence
- Neurogenic bladder
- Flaccid bladder
- Spastic bladder
- Bladder stones
- Bladder extrophy
- Urinary retention