The ketogenic, or keto, diet is a high-fat, low-carb diet that has become especially popular in recent years. Although it usually contains animal products like meat, fish, and poultry, it’s possible to adapt it to fit a vegetarian diet.
This article tells you everything you need to know about the vegetarian keto diet.
The vegetarian keto diet is an eating plan that combines aspects of vegetarianism and keto dieting.
Most vegetarians eat animal products like eggs and dairy but avoid meat and fish.
Meanwhile, the ketogenic diet is a high-fat diet that limits carb intake to 20–50 grams per day. This ultra-low-carb intake prompts ketosis, a metabolic state in which your body starts burning fat for fuel instead of glucose (1, 3).
On a traditional ketogenic diet, around 70% of your total daily calories should come from fat, including sources like oils, meat, fish, and full-fat dairy (4).
However, the vegetarian keto diet eliminates meat and fish, relying instead on other healthy fats, such as coconut oil, eggs, avocados, nuts, and seeds.
The vegetarian keto diet is a high-fat, low-carb eating pattern that eliminates meat and fish.
Although no studies examine the specific benefits of the vegetarian keto diet, plenty of research exists on the two parent diets.
Both vegetarian and ketogenic diets are associated with weight loss.
One large review of 12 studies showed that those following a vegetarian diet lost an average of 4.5 pounds (2 kg) more than non-vegetarians over 18 weeks (5).
Also, in a 6-month study in 74 people with type 2 diabetes, vegetarian diets promoted both fat and weight loss more effectively than traditional low-calorie diets (6).
Similarly, a 6-month study in 83 people with obesity found that a keto diet resulted in significant reductions in weight and body mass index (BMI), with an average weight loss of 31 pounds (14 kg) (7).
This diet’s high amount of healthy fats may also keep you feeling fuller for longer to reduce hunger and appetite (8).
Vegetarian diets have been linked to a reduced risk of several chronic conditions.
The keto diet has also been studied for its effects on disease prevention.
In a 56-week study in 66 people, the keto diet led to significant reductions in body weight, total cholesterol, LDL (bad) cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood sugar, all of which are risk factors for heart disease (11).
Vegetarian and keto diets each support blood sugar control.
A review of six studies linked vegetarian diets to a significant reduction in levels of HbA1c, a marker of long-term blood sugar control (17).
What’s more, a 5-year study in 2,918 people determined that switching to a vegetarian diet reduced diabetes risk by 53% (18).
Meanwhile, the keto diet may improve your body’s blood sugar regulation and increase its sensitivity to insulin, a hormone involved in blood sugar control (19).
In a 4-month study in 21 people, following a keto diet lowered levels of HbA1c by 16%. Impressively, 81% of participants were able to reduce or discontinue their diabetes medications by the end of the study (20).
Both vegetarian and keto diets have been shown to increase weight loss, support blood sugar control, and protect against several chronic illnesses. Keep in mind that no studies examine the vegetarian keto diet specifically.
The vegetarian keto diet has a few drawbacks to consider as well.
Vegetarian diets require proper planning to ensure that you’re meeting your nutritional needs.
Studies show that these eating patterns tend to be low in important nutrients, including vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and protein (21).
The vegetarian keto diet is even more restrictive because it limits several nutrient-dense food groups, such as fruits, legumes, and whole grains — further increasing your risk of nutritional deficiencies.
Monitoring nutrient intake carefully and eating a variety of healthy, whole foods can help ensure that you’re getting the vitamins and minerals your body needs.
Taking supplements may also help — especially for nutrients often lacking in a vegetarian diet, such as vitamin B12.
Transitioning into ketosis can cause numerous side effects, sometimes referred to as the keto flu (22).
Some of the most common symptoms include (23):
Notably, these side effects typically clear up within a few days. Getting plenty of rest, staying hydrated, and exercising regularly can help ease your symptoms.
Because the vegetarian keto diet is highly restrictive, it may not be a good option for everyone.
In particular, children and women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should avoid it, as it can limit several nutrients vital for proper growth and development.
It may also not be appropriate for athletes, those with a history of eating disorders, or people with type 1 diabetes.
If you have any underlying health conditions or are taking any medications, talk to your healthcare practitioner before starting this diet.
The vegetarian keto diet may cause short-term side effects, lack important nutrients, and be unsuitable for kids and pregnant or breastfeeding women.
A healthy vegetarian keto diet should include a variety of non-starchy vegetables, healthy fats, and protein sources, such as:
A vegetarian keto diet should include plenty of healthy fats, non-starchy vegetables, and plant protein.
On a vegetarian keto diet, you should avoid all meat and seafood.
High-carb foods like grains, legumes, fruits, and starchy vegetables are permitted only in small amounts, as long as they fit into your daily carb allotment.
You should eliminate the following foods:
Here are some foods that you should limit:
A vegetarian keto diet eliminates all meat while limiting high-carb foods like starchy vegetables, sugary drinks, grains, and fruits.
This five-day sample meal plan can help kickstart a vegetarian keto diet.
Here are a few simple snacks that you can enjoy between meals:
The sample menu above provides several ideas for simple meals and snacks that you can enjoy on the vegetarian keto diet.
The vegetarian keto diet is a high-fat, low-carb eating pattern that eliminates meat and seafood.
Independently, vegetarian and keto diets may promote blood sugar control, weight loss, and several other benefits.
Nonetheless, this diet may increase your risk of nutritional deficiencies and hasn’t been studied on its own.
Still, if you are vegetarian and interested in trying keto — or already following keto and curious about going meat-free — it’s definitely possible to combine both.
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